Being a prominent statesman, genius thinker, politician and publicist, Mahammad Emin Rasul- zade played a significant role in in the creation of the People’s Republic of Azerbaijan, in its formation and activity. Mahammad Emin Rasul-zade was born on the 31st of January, 1884, in Baku. Being a young man, Mahammad Emin Rasul- zade created his first underground organization in 1902- 1907, called “Muslim Youth Organization”, and was engaged in literary activity and popular writing. At the end of 1904 on the basis of the Muslim Democratic Musavat Society he was one of the founders of Muslim Social- Democratic “Hummet”(Support) Organization under Baku Committee of the Russian Democratic Workers’ Party.
In 1906- 1907 he appeared in the newspaper “Tekamul” (Evolution) and others demanding equality for the nations, people and individuals before the law and freedom. With the lapse of time these political demands turned into challenges which sounded like freedom for people, independence for nations.
By the end of 1908 Mahammad Emin Rasul-zade left Baku for Iran feeling the threat of being arrested for disseminating the ideas of national independence. Fearing the revolutionary movement in Iran, the czarist government demanded from Iran to drive Mahammad Emin Rasul-zade, one of the main leaders of that revolutionary movement, out of the country. To escape the persecutions he exiled to Istanbul in 1911. In Turkey he sympathized with the organization of the Young Turkish and worked in the center of an organization called “Turk ocağı”.
After the issue of the decree on pardoning in connection with the 300th anniversary of the dynasty of the Romanovs in 1913 Mahammad Emin Rasul-zade returned home and began to head the Muslim Democratic Party of Musavat (Equality) and to take an active part in the national liberation movement.
On October 26- 31, 1917, the first congress of the Turkic Ədəmi centrist Musavat Party was held in Baku with 500 representatives taking part in it. Mahammad Emin Rasul- zade was elected chairman of the Central Committee of the party.
On May 26, 1918, as a result of the internal intrigues of fractions, the Transcaucasian Parliament collapsed. On the 27th of the same month the National Council of Azerbaijan was established. It consisted of the members of different parties in the Muslim fraction of the parliament. When the Transcaucasian Seim (parliament) disintegrated, Mahammad Emin Rasul- zade was in the conference in Batumi; nevertheless, he was elected chairman of the National Council by balloting.On May 28, 1918, the National Council declared the independence of Azerbaijan as a state and approved the Declaration of Independence.
Mahammad Emin Rasul-zade chaired the presidium of the Second Congress of Musavat Party in the December of 1919 and made an account report on the activity of the Central Committee of the party and of the fraction of the same party in the parliament.
After the events of April 28, on the 17th of August of the same year Mahammad Emin Rasul- zade was arrested. After releasing from prison I. V. Stalin took Mahammad Emin Rasul- zade to Moscow and appointed him to the post of press secretary in the Commissariat of Nationalities of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. In Moscow he was under a strong control. Under the pretext of conducting a research work he left for Leningrad (now Sanct-Peterburg), there with the help of Musa Jarullah Bigiyev (1875- 1949), one of the Tatar enlighteners, he crossed to Finland and then immigrated to Turkey from there.
Thus, since 1922, his life of a political emigrant began. Since 1931 he continued his life as an emigrant in the European countries. Since 1932 he began to live in Poland. In 1936 he held the conference of Musavat Party in Warsaw, which had the authority of a congress. In 1938 he worked as an adviser to the Polish government. In connection with the break of the World War Second in 1939 he went to France, from there to Switzerland, then to England, finally to Romania and began to live there since 1940.
By the end of the war he lived illegally in Munich and created an anti-fascist organization engaged in the liberation of Azerbaijanis from the fascist captivity. Some time later he created the Turkish- Azerbaijani association which helped the liberated captives to go to Turkey. In
1947 Mahammad Emin Rasul- zade returned to Turkey and continued there his activity as the head of the Azerbaijani National Center. To unite all the Azerbaijani emigrants around a single center he instituted the House of Azerbaijani Culture in Ankara in 1949. Even in the years of his immigration and till the last days of his life he continued his fight for the goal in which he believed. On the 6th of March, 1955, he breathed his last and joined the eternity uttering the words “Azerbaijan…, Azerbaijan…, Azerbaijan…” He was buried in the cemetery of Asri in Ankara.