The literature which has formed in the migration occupies important place in history of Azerbaijani literature, rich in ideas, passed through the many-field social development past, motley and rich in styles.
Azerbaijani migration literature is as ancient as rich. In the Middle Ages prominent writers of Azerbaijan Khatib Tabrizi and Imadaddin Nasimi had created outside the country.
Since early XX Azerbaijan migration literature has begun to form entirely. Azerbaijani Migration literature has been formed by creative forces that were forced to leave country for various foreign counties due to different social-political reasons. Among these reasons was to stand against the colonial policy of tsar Russia in Azerbaijan, pursuing of founders of Azerbaijani Democratic Republic by Bolsheviks. Life of captivity and exile emerged after the Second World War has played the definite part in development of the migration literature.
Likewise other areas of the literature the basis of children's literature based on children's folklore (mainly tales, lullabies, okhshama and others). However, the creation of a professional children's literature in Azerbaijan dates back to the beginning of the XX century.
From the early twentieth century there was a revival in the field of education and culture: a number of educational institutions, charitable societies, publishing houses, libraries have been created.
Writers dealing with the children's literature used to publish own works in the pages of textbooks for new stylized schools, in all the periodical press, especially in the periodical children's press. New styled schools rose as an urgent issue creation of new content and textbooks.
Beginning since 60-es, at result of slight warming of global socio-political atmosphere and weakening of ideological chains in the USSR the young creative talents in the artistic area began to write works criticizing the existing political structure. Among them were prosaists and poets, like Isa Huseynov, Mammed Araz, Sabir Ahmedov, Anar, Akram Ayrisli, Elchin, Sabir Rustamkhanly, Alakber Salahzade, Farman Kerimzade, Maksud Ibrahimbekov, Rustam Ibrahimbekov, Movlud Suleymanly, Yusif Samedoglu, Isi Malikzade.
The dramaturgy of the Soviet period is closely connected with the names of Hussein Javid, Suleyman Sani Akhundov, Jafar Jabbarly, Mirza Ibrahimov, Samad Vurgun, Sabit Rahman, Anwar Mammadkhanly, Ilyas Efendiyev, Shikhali Gurbanov and others.
Ahmad Javad (1892-1937) and Mikayil Mushfiq (1908-1938) as well as Samad Vurgun are considered major leaders of XX century Azerbaijani poetry. Suleyman Rustam (1906-1989) and Alaga Vahid (1895-1965) are poets with special contribution in the development of the lyrics.
In first decade of XIX century, by the important event happened in the history of the Azerbaijani people, the occupation of Azerbaijan by the Russian Empire likewise in whole culture the western trends intensified in the literature, too.
Since the XIII century, under the influence of objective historical reality in the the literature of Azerbaijan created mainly in Arabic and Persian languages the number of poets and artists writing in their native language increases gradually. Since that time the period of ancient literature of Azerbaijan finishes and medieval period begins.
The oldest example of written literature in Azerbaijan emerged during Median state in the sixth century BC (VII-VI centuries BC) and it is “Avesta”, an author of which is Prophet Zoroaster. Here, the dualistic outlook of the Azerbaijani people, the imagination of primary humans on struggle of the good and evil was reflected in this work.
Based on the ancient mythological world outlook epos Dede Gorgud was written in XI century BC under the name of "Kitabi Deden Gorgud". And the copies known to the science are copies of XVI century’s manuscripts. According to opinion of German orientalist Friedrich von Dits, that first investigated the artistic monuments some of the mythological subjects had stimulated creation of analogical subjects in ancient Greece (Cyclopes).